Single- phase loads are connected to one leg of the wye between line and neutral. Calculator-1. Should hardwood floors go all the way to wall under kitchen cabinets? Why using three phase systems? Sum of readings W1 + W2 = i1v1 – i1v3 + i2v2 – i2v3 = i1v1 + i2v2 – (i1 + i2) v3, (From Kirchoff’s law: i1 + i2 + i3 = 0, so i1 + i2 = -i3). The power formula for 3 phase system is. Does your organization need a developer evangelist? inventions such as the polyphase (3-phase) AC power system, the induction motor, the Tesla coil, the transformer, and the fluorescent light was instrumental in resolving the AC vs DC argument in favor of AC transmission. The instantaneous power measured by a wattmeter is the product of the instantaneous voltage and current samples. It should be picture of star connection. As per definition, we need to find two parameters: rms value of ripple present in rectifier output current or voltage and average value of output of rectifier for one time period T. For calculating rms value of ripple I rms, first we need to find the ripple. Thanks for contributing an answer to Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange! A higher phase to phase voltage is also available as shown by the black vector in Figure 8. The easiest way to calculate the power is if we start with a wye three-phase system because the calculation is simply three times the single-phase power. Figure 12-3 Producing a single-phase voltage. Three-phase reactive power formulas Q T 3 V p I p sin( ) Total Reactive Phase Reactive Q p V p I p sin(p) Where p is the angle between phase voltage and phase current Also 2 T 2 S T P T Q and T T p S P F 3 power factor . The power factor (pf) will always be a value of 1 or less. One half of the copper is required and the wire transmission losses will be halved. Figure 12-2 Three-phase power never falls to zero. MathJax reference. The easiest way to calculate the power is if we start with a wye three-phase system because the calculation is simply three times the single-phase power. So if we calculate 15000/ (1.732x380x0.85x0.89) Solution: kVA = 200 * 2 / 1000 = 0.4 kVA. 0 Comment. Motor volts are 380 volts, Eff is 0.89 and PF is 0.85 according to the above nameplate. Is it illegal to carry someone else's ID or credit card? As a definition, the voltage across the load impedance and the current in the impedance can be used to compute the power per phase. This point is often grounded at the supply for safety reasons. In a single-phase system there are just two wires. The formulas are selected based on the wiring configuration, so setting the wiring is critical to get good total power measurements. 3-Phase Wye (Balanced Load) 3-Phase Open Wye (No Neutral) I P = I L V P = V L … Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. Li-aung Yip Li-aung Yip. Derivation of Ripple Factor Formula. A modern power analyzer will also use Kirchoff’s law to calculate the current flowing in the neutral line. The Average-Value Rectifier (Three-Phase) block models an average-value, full-wave, six-pulse rectifier. a.3 phase 480/277 volts b.3 phase 400/230 volts c.3 phase 220/127 volts d. 3 phase 480 volts delta e.3 phase 200 volts delta f. Single phase 120 volts. After all, a three phase circuit is essentially a combination of three separate single phase circuits which happen to have peaks and valleys separated by a period of time. If the sum is zero, then both end points are at the same potential and may be joined together. With single-phase AC power there is only one single sinusoidal voltage. V= line voltage or phase voltage. Three-phase reactive power formulas Q T 3 V p I p sin( ) Total Reactive Phase Reactive Q p V p I p sin(p) Where p is the angle between phase voltage and phase current Also 2 T 2 S T P T Q and T T p S P F 3 power factor . P=√3 *V*I*cos (phi) Here, P=power output. Table 1. In regards to Voltage and current, it is articulated as. Known variables: Line Voltage, Line Current, Power Factor Angle. In practice, loads are not perfectly balanced and a fourth ‘neutral’ wire is used to carry the resultant current. Definitions For Both Wye and Delta ... W = Wattage Wye and Delta Equivalent W DELTA = 3 W WYE. Single Phase Power Equation for Purely Capacitive Circuit . The three-wire, three-wattmeter connection has the advantages of indicating the power in each individual phase (not possible in the two-wattmeter connection) and phase to neutral voltages. Three Phase A.C. AC power is available as both single-phase and as 3-phase AC. Ubuntu 20.04: Why does turning off "wi-fi can be turned off to save power" turn my wi-fi off? The three single-phase supplies discussed earlier could also be connected in series. Open 3-Phase Circuit Formulas: Open Delta Watts = 2 / 3 W DELTA Open Wye Watts = 1 / 2 W WYE Open 4-wire Wye Watts = 2 / 3 W WYE. Reference // The Fundamentals of Three Phase Power Measurements – Application Note by Tektronix. We have to be careful to use the proper magnitudes when calculating the power. By using this same procedure but inserting the respective single-phase voltage, you get the following single-phase constants, as shown in Table 1. In a three phase AC circuit, the total True or Active power is the sum of the three phase power. Now my question is how can one derive the apparent power equation i.e.. √3 EI Hence, total active or true power in a three phase AC system; Total True or Active Power = 3 Phase Power You must make sure you have sufficient number of (3 wattmeter method) channels, and connect them properly. It converts instantaneous three-phase AC voltages to DC voltage and DC power demand to three-phase AC power demand. The voltages measured are the true phase to neutral voltages. This connection requires two transformers of different ratings although… AC power is available as both single-phase and as 3-phase AC. During his lifetime, he held over 700 patents and was influential in the selection of 60 Hz as the standard frequency for AC power systems. Typical 3-Phase Wiring Diagrams and Equations for Resistive Heaters. How to derive apparent power formula for three phase AC system? Active 4 years, 11 months ago. Although single-phase electricity is used to supply common domestic and office electrical appliances, three phase alternating current (a.c.) systems are almost universally used to distribute electrical power and to supply electricity directly to higher power equipment. Example 1: Find the apparent power in kVA drawn by a 200 V single phase generator having 2 Amps current passing through it. 208V is also available between the center tap and the third ‘high leg’ of the delta connection. Line to line voltage: W applied = 3 1/2 U ll I cos Φ = 3 1/2 U ll I PF (1) where. The wye configuration can also supply single or three phase power to higher power loads at a higher voltage. The delta configuration is most often used to supply higher power three phase industrial loads. rev 2020.12.2.38106, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. Constants used on single-phase systems . Real Power. Power Formulas In Dc And Ac 1 Phase 3 Circuits Circuit Formula Electrical Diagram. Power Formula is articulated as, or, Where, The Energy Consumed to do work = E Work done = W Time taken= t In any electrical circuit, the power is computed making use of these three formulas . Why did George Lucas ban David Prowse (actor of Darth Vader) from appearing at sci-fi conventions? When do you need three phases and why do … For this purpose, Scott connection as shown in Fig. The total load on each phase is shared out as much as possible to present a balanced load to the primary three phase supply. It only takes a minute to sign up. 3-Phase Calculations. The torque produced by three phase induction motor depends upon the following three factors: Firstly the magnitude of rotor current, secondly the flux which interact with the rotor of three phase induction motor and is responsible for producing emf in the rotor part of induction motor, lastly the power factor of rotor of the three phase induction motor. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Variant: Skills with Different Abilities confuses me. i.e. Study specialized technical articles, electrical guides, and papers. Understanding wiring configurations and making proper connections is critical to performing power measurements. Let’s assume we want 3 times more power transmitted in the system. The connection is usually drawn as shown in Figure 7 and is known a delta connection after the shape of the Greek letter delta, Δ. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. The current is simply the kVA divided by the voltage. The power taken by a circuit (single or three phase) is measured in watts W (or kW). Each AC voltage ‘phase’ is separated by 120° from the other (Figure 1). Active 4 years, 11 months ago. If you have balanced three-phase power, where all three phase voltages are equal in magnitude and 120° apart in phase, then: $$ V_{L-L} = \sqrt{3} \times V_{L-N} $$ To see why, consider the phasor diagram: Applying some basic trig: share | improve this answer | follow | edited Dec 6 '13 at 2:04. answered Dec 6 '13 at 1:54. θ = Phase angle of load Cos θ = Power Factor: Motors see 6-5, 6-6, .6-.8 is usual see 5-1 to 5-8 for more power factor calculations, also 8-2 Given voltage drop, find wire size Voltage Drop 3∅ = √3 I (Z) L Z = Voltage Drop = Vd √3 I L √3 IL Voltage Drop 1 ∅= 21 (Z) L Z = Voltage Drop = Vd 2 I L 2 IL Procedure (Example) 1. Viewed 1k times 0 \$\begingroup\$ I know that the total power output of a three phase system is √3 EI cosØ Where E and I … Which game is this six-sided die with two sets of runic-looking plus, minus and empty sides from? Do MEMS accelerometers have a lower frequency limit? It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. Is there a way to notate the repeat of a larger section that itself has repeats in it? I have sent it to forum members in the past, if they ask for it by PM, and give me an email address. How do people recognise the frequency of a played note? Panshin's "savage review" of World of Ptavvs, I accidentally added a character, and then forgot to write them in for the rest of the series. I have written up a derivation of the formula for power in a three phase system, and it shows the origin of that square root of three. Apparent power is defined as the product of current time voltage passing through an AC circuit. Enter the load value in Amps. In order for the power analyzer to give good results, you must be able to correctly identify the wiring configuration and connect the analyzer’s wattmeters correctly. The diagram below shows three single-phase systems (three generators isolated from each other). The common point is called the neutral point. The formulas are selected based on the wiring configuration, so setting the wiring is critical to get good total power measurements. The Wye configuration is used to distribute power to everyday single-phase appliances found in the home and office. Why does the FAA require special authorization to act as PIC in the North American T-28 Trojan? Substituting the values for phase current and phase voltage for both Delta and Wye connected system into the above formula gives power in watts in a 3-phase A.C circuit connected in … The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. After all, there is no return load on a balanced three-phase load, and thus why would one consider line-to-line voltages? By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. To better understand three phase power, a person would be well advised to first review and understand the principles applicable to single phase power. In Star or Y connections, fundamentally we connect the same phase sides to a mutual (common) point known as neutral point and provide supply to its free ends which stay thereafter as shown in figure 1. Cos (phi)= power factor Table 1. After all, a three phase circuit is essentially a combination of three separate single phase circuits which happen to have peaks and valleys separated by a period of time. Does a regular (outlet) fan work for drying the bathroom? Here, single phase power formula consists of only fluctuating term and the value of power for full cycle is zero. I don't get it, you already wrote both formulas. What is the effect of the unbalanced load current(3 phase Y or Delta) in a 3-phase wattmeter? Alternating current (AC) has a sinusoidal shape and changes its direction and amplitude alternately. Hence, the electrical generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Total instantaneous power 1.5 2 2 cos 3 cos . 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1.732xVxPfxEff) Both are the same. Podcast 291: Why developers are demanding more ethics in tech, “Question closed” notifications experiment results and graduation, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2, 4, and 9 UTC…, Total power measurement in 3-phase unbalanced delta system, Symmetrical three-phase power flow problem, √3, why we say that in three phase system total power delivered to the balanced three-phase circuit is the same at any instant. inventions such as the polyphase (3-phase) AC power system, the induction motor, the Tesla coil, the transformer, and the fluorescent light was instrumental in resolving the AC vs DC argument in favor of AC transmission. Base Impe Do We Use Single Phase Or Three Values To … How to derive apparent power formula for three phase AC system? Connect the wattmeters as shown in Figure 12. from the totalpower equation √3 EI cosØ ? In regards to voltage and resistance, it is articulated as. Thus as the three phases rotate across the rectifier terminals, conduction is passed from diode to diode. The ripple factor formula can easily be derived from its definition. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. In regards to voltage and resistance, it is articulated as. On figure 5 is delta connection. Most AC power today is produced and distributed as three-phase power where three sinusoidal voltages are generated out of phase with each other. The system connection to the voltage and current terminals of the wattmeter is straightforward. The product of the voltage and current is the apparent power and measured in VA (or kVA) . What is the application of `rev` in real life? I have sent it to forum members in the past, if they ask for it by PM, and give me an email address. This is common in North American residential applications, where one 240 V and two 120V supplies are available and may have different loads on each leg. Square Root 3 And Three Phase Power Where Does It Come From Electrical Pe Review . Get access to premium HV/MV/LV technical articles, electrical engineering guides, research studies and much more! This technical article describes the basic principles of three phase systems and the difference between the different measurement connections that are possible. In star connections, fundamentally we connect the same phase sides to a mutual (common) point known as neutral point and provide supply to its free ends which stay thereafter as shown in figure 1. When the load current in each phase is the same the load is said to be balanced. Definitions For Both Wye and Delta ... W = Wattage Wye and Delta Equivalent W DELTA = 3 W WYE. You have one error in this artikel. In a three-phase 120° system, only 3 wires are required to transmit the power that would otherwise require 6 wires. By admin | February 11, 2018. 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1.732xVxPfxEff) Both are the same. Why is frequency not measured in db in bode's plot? Three wattmeters are required to measure total watts in a four-wire system. The torque produced by three phase induction motor depends upon the following three factors: Firstly the magnitude of rotor current, secondly the flux which interact with the rotor of three phase induction motor and is responsible for producing emf in the rotor part of induction motor, lastly the power factor of rotor of the three phase induction motor. No need for a complicated formula. If you have a piece of equipment that draws 80A, then you can calculate the relative size of the required power source, which is 10kW (80 ÷ 8.33). Power in AC circuits, the use of RMS quantities and 3 phase AC – including answers to these questions: What are RMS values? Alternatively, the three supplies can be connected to a common return, as shown in Figure 4. A modern digital sampling wattmeter, such as any of the Tektronix power analyzers, multiplies instantaneous samples of voltage and current together to calculate instantaneous watts and then takes an average of the instantaneous watts over one cycle to display the true power. Figure 1. Basic Formula To Calculate Appa Power In Single And Three Phase Circuits Basics Of Electrical Engineering. It helps you. I = line current. Viewed 1k times 0 \$\begingroup\$ I know that the total power output of a three phase system is √3 EI cosØ Where E and I are the line voltage and line current. Increasing the power value of the electrical transmission system requires increasing the number of transmission lines (conductors), thus adding to the total cost. The factor √3 can only be used to convert between systems or scale the measurements of only one wattmeter on balanced, linear systems. Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. Hence, total active or true power in a three phase AC system; Total True or Active Power = 3 Phase Power Can I (a US citizen) travel from Puerto Rico to Miami with just a copy of my passport? FORMULAS Related Links: Osmotic Pressure Formula: Displacement Formula: Triangle Angle Formula: Growth Formula: How To Calculate Specific Gravity: Pyramid Formula: Formula To Find Inverse Of A Matrix: Electric Field Formula: Voltage Divider Formula : Friction Equation: Leave a Comment Cancel reply. Torque of a three phase induction motor is proportional to flux per stator pole, rotor current and the power factor of the rotor. The content is copyrighted to EEP and may not be reproduced on other websites. Since alternate polarities of the magnetic field cut through the conduc- tors of the stationary coil, the induced voltage will change polarity at the same speed as the rotation of the magnetic field. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. One reason for this confusion is that there are actually two formulas that can be used. The relationship between kVA and kW is the power factor (pf):Single phase system - this is the easiest to deal with. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. The diagonal of that parallelogram shows the vector difference of I R and I B which is equal to current in Line 1= I 1. Since the phase impedances of a balanced star- or delta-connected load contain equal currents, the phase power is one-third of the total power. Line & Phase Current and Line & Phase Voltage in Delta (Δ) Connection. The center-tap may be grounded at the transformer for safety reasons. The diagonal of that parallelogram shows the vector difference of I R and I B which is equal to current in Line 1= I 1. Being familiar with common wiring systems, and remembering Blondel’s Theorem will help you get the connections right and results you can rely upon. The voltage terminals of the wattmeters are connected phase to phase. We have to be careful to use the proper magnitudes when calculating the power. Calculator-3 Input the three-phase total power, and reactive power into Calculator-3 to compute three-phase real power, power factor, and power factor angle (degrees). The power factor of an AC circuit (Figure 2) is the ratio of the true power, which is the wattage of the circuit divided by the apparent power of the circuit. I think I will figure out how to post it as a FAQ, so I won?t have to send out email messages anymore. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.5 cos V I V I tot A B C p t p t p t p t V I m m The instantaneous power of the entire Y-Load is a constant independent of time! Use MathJax to format equations. In a three phase AC circuit, the total True or Active power is the sum of the three phase power. A power analyzer with vector mathematics capability will also convert phase to neutral (or wye) quantities to phase to phase (or delta) quantities. 3.8 Power in Three-Phase AC Circuits. As per definition, we need to find two parameters: rms value of ripple present in rectifier output current or voltage and average value of output of rectifier for one time period T. For calculating rms value of ripple I rms, first we need to find the ripple. I think I will figure out how to post it as a FAQ, so I won?t have to send out email messages anymore. Power is measured using a single wattmeter. How can a company reduce my number of shares? How can you work out the power developed in an AC circuit? Or the sum of the all three phase powers is the Total Active or True Power. Three-phase to Two-phase Conversion and vice-versa This conversion is required to supply two-phase furnaces, to link two-phase circuit with 3-phase sys- tem and also to supply a 3-phase apparatus from a 2-phase supply source. In a three phase 120° system, only 3 wires are required to transmit the power that would otherwise require 6 wires. Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. N S A. How can you get 680 V dc from a 240 V ac supply just by rectifying? The significance of the algebraic sum will be realized in the paragraphs that follow. Line & Phase Current and Line & Phase Voltage in Delta (Δ) Connection. Power Factor of an AC Circuit. You will get several good sites with explanations of the root 3 factor, but it's basically there if you convert between wye and delta for voltagte or current. The power factor of an AC circuit (Figure 2) is the ratio of the true power, which is the wattage of the circuit divided by the apparent power of the circuit. Although only two wattmeters are required to measure total power in a three-wire system as shown earlier, it is sometimes convenient to use three wattmeters. In this system, shown in Figure 11, the voltages are produced from one center-tapped transformer winding and all voltages are in phase. Effect of Reversed Phase Polarity on Active & Reactive Power of 3-Phase System? The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. 22:38. By using this same procedure but inserting the respective single-phase voltage, you get the following single-phase constants, as shown in Table 1. When AC passes through capacitor, it charges first to its maximum value and then it discharges. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. T ∝ ɸ I 2 cosɸ 2 OR T = k ɸ I 2 cosɸ 2. where, ɸ = flux per stator pole, I 2 = rotor current at standstill, ɸ 2 = angle between rotor emf and rotor current, k … Or the sum of the all three phase powers is the Total Active or True Power. As far as line and phase voltages are concerned, they are related to each other as: Vline=√3VphaseVline=3Vphase Which means that whatever supplyvoltage we have, we need to insulate the windings for 1/√31/3 times the line volta… phase shifted by 120° from each other, the sum of the current at any instant is zero and there is no current in the return line. Perform a three-phase power calculation using the formula: P = √3 × pf × I × V Where pf is the power factor, I is the current, V is the voltage and P is the power. Three phase electricity consists of three AC voltages of identical frequency and similar amplitude. So our motor power is 15KW with 15 x 1000 = 15000 Watts. The total load is 3 × 100W = 300W. In regards to current and resistance, it is articulated as. Its basic parts are a stator and a rotor. In 3-phase power rectifiers, conduction always occurs in the most positive diode and the corresponding most negative diode. consider three phase current magnitude and its phasor angle Ia ∠0°, Ib ∠120°, and Ic ∠240°. The voltage terminals of the wattmeter are connected in parallel across the load and the current is passed through the current terminals which are in series with the load. Three phase kVA = [E * I * 1.73] / 1000. The torque developed at the shaft of a 3-phase motor is constant, less vibration in machinery powered by 3-phase motors. Fig (2). The ripple factor formula can easily be derived from its definition. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 11 months ago. For two reasons: Consider three single-phase systems each supplying 100W to a load (Figure 3). How to find the apparent power absorbed by a three phases load? For a given number of wires, N, N-1 wattmeters are required to measure total quantities such as power. Power is measured in ac systems using wattmeters. The power factor (pf) will always be a value of 1 or less. Different voltage combinations can be obtained from one three phase delta supply however, by making connections or ‘taps’ along the windings of the supply transformers. If you have a piece of equipment that draws 80A, then you can calculate the relative size of the required power source, which is 10kW (80 ÷ 8.33). 8 3 Phase Power Calculation With Line Cur And Voltage You. How to derive apparent power formula for three phase AC system? In regards to current and resistance, it is articulated as. AC current is generated by an electrical AC generator operating on the electromagnetic induction (EMI) principle. 2) Phase-B: 1VRMS, 120 degrees 3) Phase-C: 1VRMS, 240 degrees Instead of me explaining anymore, do a google search on the following search term: 3 phase power calculations. Given the kW and power factor the kVA can be easily worked out. How can you work out the power developed in an AC circuit? Open 3-Phase Circuit Formulas: Open Delta Watts = 2 / 3 W DELTA Open Wye Watts = 1 / 2 W WYE Open 4-wire Wye Watts = 2 / 3 W WYE. In regards to Voltage and current, it is articulated as. To measure the total power and other quantities, connect two wattmeters as shown in Figure 11 below. Thanks Zryn, however, I'm still not clear how that implies the voltage drop on a three-phase load involves the Sqrt(3). Here, for calculating vector sum of these current we should effectively consider magnitude as well as phasor quantity of the currents. Tell us what you're thinking... we care about your opinion! During his lifetime, he held over 700 patents and was influential in the selection of 60 Hz as the standard frequency for AC power systems. Is it considered offensive to address one's seniors by name in the US? You can use the Average-Value Rectifier (Three-Phase) block only as a six-pulse rectifier. Derivation of Ripple Factor Formula. One half of the copper is required and the wire transmission losses will be halved. Go back to Three phase power measurements ↑. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 11 months ago. Motor volts are 380 volts, Eff is 0.89 and PF is 0.85 according to the above nameplate. Three Phase Power Equation Derivation. The latter represents the magnetic field source while the former contains the conductor where the … Example 2: Find the current drawn by 500 kVA transformer @ rated voltage 5 … Building algebraic geometry without prime ideals. What do I do to get my nine-year old boy off books with pictures and onto books with text content? As an example, consider a loa… Circuit) Bhavesh M Jesadia, EE Department Elements of Electrical Engineering (210005) 6 5.5 Relation between line and phase values for voltage and current in case of balanced star connection. It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. The current of Line 1 can be found by determining the vector difference between I R and I B and we can do that by increasing the I B Vector in reverse, so that, I R and I B makes a parallelogram. A three phase system with a common connection is normally drawn as shown in Figure 5 and is known as a ‘wye’ or ‘star’ connection. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. May 28, 2018 Basic Formulas, Apparent power is defined as the product of current time voltage passing through an AC circuit. By formula: pf = W ÷ Volt-Amps=P ÷ S Electric power formula is, P = I 2 R. P = 4 2 ×3 P = 16×3 = 48 watts . Is it allowed to put spaces after macro parameter? Phase = 1.732 THREE-PHASE POWER Students sometimes become confused when computing power in three-phase circuits. With the load balanced, and the three currents phase shifted by 120° from each other, the sum of the current at any instant is zero and there is no current in the return line. A power analyzer with vector mathematics capability will also convert phase to neutral (or wye) quantities to phase to phase (or delta) quantities.

3 phase power formula derivation

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